Offline Fictitious Self-Play for Competitive Games


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Offline Reinforcement Learning (RL) has received significant interest due to its ability to improve policies in previously collected datasets without online interactions. Despite its success in the single-agent setting, offline multi-agent RL remains a challenge, especially in competitive games. Firstly, unaware of the game structure, it is impossible to interact with the opponents and conduct a major learning paradigm, self-play, for competitive games. Secondly, real-world datasets cannot cover all the state and action space in the game, resulting in barriers to identifying Nash equilibrium (NE). To address these issues, this paper introduces Off-FSP, the first practical model-free offline RL algorithm for competitive games. We start by simulating interactions with various opponents by adjusting the weights of the fixed dataset with importance sampling. This technique allows us to learn best responses to different opponents and employ the Offline Self-Play learning framework. In this framework, we further implement Fictitious Self-Play (FSP) to approximate NE. In partially covered real-world datasets, our methods show the potential to approach NE by incorporating any single-agent offline RL method. Experimental results in Leduc Hold'em Poker show that our method significantly improves performances compared with state-of-the-art baselines.
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