Pre-lithiation strategy to design a high-performance zinc oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries

NANOSCALE(2024)

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摘要
Zinc oxide (ZnO) shows great potential as an anode material for advanced energy storage devices owing to its good structural stability and low cost. However, its inferior cycling capacity seriously restricts its practical application. In this work, a pre-lithiation strategy is adopted to construct pre-lithiated ZnO (Li-ZnO) via the facile solid-state reaction method. This well-designed Li-ZnO is polycrystalline, consisting of fine particles. XPS analysis and Raman results confirm the successful pre-lithiation strategy. The pre-lithiation strategy increases the electronic conductivity of Li-ZnO without further carbon coating and suppresses the volume expansion during the electrochemical reaction. As a result, 5 mol% Li-ZnO displays good reversible capacity with a specific capacity of 639 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at 0.1 A g-1. After 1440 cycles at 1.0 A g-1, the capacity retention is 380 mA h g-1. The pseudocapacitance contribution can reach up to 72.5% at 1.0 mV s-1. Electrochemical kinetic analysis shows that this pre-lithiation strategy can accelerate the lithium-ion diffusion and charge transfer kinetics of the Li-ZnO anode and suppress the pulverization of the electrochemical reaction. This study demonstrates the necessity of developing new anode materials with good cycling stability via this pre-lithiation strategy. The pre-lithiation strategy is applied to improve the lithium ion storage performance of ZnO anode. The successful lithium doping is confirmed. The relationship between doping amount and electrochemical performance is deeply investigated.
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