Co-release of nitric oxide and L-arginine from poly (β-amino ester)-based adhesive reprogram macrophages for accelerated wound healing and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo

Biomaterials Advances(2024)

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Recently, insufficient angiogenesis and prolonged inflammation are crucial challenges of chronic skin wound healing. The sustained release of L-Arginine (L-Arg) and nitric oxide (NO) production can control immune responses, improve angiogenesis, enhance re-epithelialization, and accelerate wound healing. Here, we aim to improve wound healing via the controlled release of NO and L-Arg from poly (β-amino ester) (PβAE). In this regard, PβAE is functionalized with methacrylate poly-L-Arg (PAMA), and the role of PAMA content (50, 66, and 75 wt%) on the adhesive properties, L-Arg, and NO release, as well as collagen deposition, inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis, is investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results show that the PAMA/ PβAE could provide suitable adhesive strength (~25 kPa) for wound healing application. In addition, increasing the PAMA content from 50 to 75 wt% results in an increased release of L-Arg (approximately 1.4–1.7 times) and enhanced NO production (approximately 2 times), promoting skin cell proliferation and migration. The in vitro studies also show that compared to PβAE hydrogel, incorporation of 66 wt% PAMA (PAMA 66 sample) reveals superior collagen I synthesis (~ 3–4 times) of fibroblasts, controlled pro-inflammatory and improved anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion of macrophages, and accelerated angiogenesis (~1.5–2 times). In vivo studies in a rat model with a full-thickness skin defect also demonstrate the PAMA66 sample could accelerate wound healing (~98 %) and angiogenesis, compared to control (untreated wound) and Tegaderm™ commercial wound dressing. In summary, the engineered multifunctional PAMA functionalized PβAE hydrogel with desired NO and L-Arg release, and adhesive properties can potentially reprogram macrophages and accelerate skin healing for chronic wound healing.
Poly (β-amino ester),Methacrylate poly-L-arginine,Nitric oxide,Adhesive,Chronic wound healing
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