Defining Semantically Close Words of Kazakh Language with Distributed System Apache Spark


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This work focuses on determining semantically close words and using semantic similarity in general in order to improve performance in information retrieval tasks. The semantic similarity of words is an important task with many applications from information retrieval to spell checking or even document clustering and classification. Although, in languages with rich linguistic resources, the methods and tools for this task are well established, some languages do not have such tools. The first step in our experiment is to represent the words in a collection in a vector form and then define the semantic similarity of the terms using a vector similarity method. In order to tame the complexity of the task, which relies on the number of word (and, consequently, of the vector) pairs that have to be combined in order to define the semantically closest word pairs, A distributed method that runs on Apache Spark is designed to reduce the calculation time by running comparison tasks in parallel. Three alternative implementations are proposed and tested using a list of target words and seeking the most semantically similar words from a lexicon for each one of them. In a second step, we employ pre-trained multilingual sentence transformers to capture the content semantics at a sentence level and a vector-based semantic index to accelerate the searches. The code is written in MapReduce, and the experiments and results show that the proposed methods can provide an interesting solution for finding similar words or texts in the Kazakh language.
cosine,natural language processing,semantically close words,Apache Spark,FAISS,vector
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