Tmic-09. primary cilia regulate extracellular vesicle-mediated immunosuppression in human glioblastoma cells

Mi‐Yeon Jung, Josie Trichka, Masahiro Oishi, Afua Agyeman-Andoh,Joshua A. Welsh, Jonathan H. George, Amanda M. Roehrkasse, Maxwell T. Laws,Jennifer C. Jones, Stanley Adoro,Ian F. Parney,Desmond Brown


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Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Despite maximal safe resection, followed by chemoradiation, median survival is 15 months, and 5-year survival is 6.8%. Efficacy of immunotherapy is limited by glioblastoma-mediated immunosuppression. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of small membrane-bound particles that are released from all cell types. Glioblastoma-derived EVs regulate the tumor microenvironment and tumor progression in a paracrine manner. They also regulate glioblastoma-mediated systemic immunosuppression in an IL6- and PDL1-dependent manner by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) ultimately resulting in T cell depletion. Primary cilia are ubiquitous microtubule-based organelles that project from the mother centriole and are present on glioblastoma cells. Inhibition of ciliogenesis–through knockdown of KIF3A, IFT88, or ARL13B (structural ciliary proteins required for ciliogenesis)–abolishes IL6 induction in response to chemoradiation and significantly reduces the induction of MDSCs in normal human donor monocytes exposed to glioblastoma-derived EVs. Inhibition of ciliogenesis does not affect the biophysical properties of EVs but our data instead suggest significant alterations in EV packaging and content in response to ciliary loss. These data suggest a novel role for primary cilia in packaging of EV contents and connects these organelles with tumor EV-mediated immunosuppression in glioblastomas. These findings have potential implications for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in glioblastoma–a universally fatal disease.
primary cilia,glioblastoma,immunosuppression,cells,vesicle-mediated
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