Viral infection in the brain induces priming and maintenance of a novel antigen specific CD8 T cell population within the bone marrow that dysregulates the stem cell niche

Delaney Wolf,Zachariah P. Tritz, Rachael A. Reesman, Frances A. Rangel, Michael A. Bamkole,Christian K. Pfaller, Mark A. Maynes,Michael J. Hansen,Fang Jin,Cori E. Fain,Aaron J. Johnson,Katayoun Ayasoufi

Journal of Immunology(2023)

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Abstract Bone marrow is a primary immune organ responsible for stem cell maintenance and hematopoiesis. While the bone marrow niche is mainly studied in the context of hematopoiesis, aging, and mechanisms underlying stem cell and plasma cell survival, changes of the niche during brain viral infections and primary T cell responses is unknown. Intracranial infection with the neurotropic Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) results in an acute infection in the C57BL/6 mouse which is cleared 30 days post infection due to generation of an antigen specific CD8 T cell response raised against the immunodominant epitope VP2 121–130. We determined that 7–10% of CD8 T cells present in the sternal and femoral bone marrows and 15–20% in the cranial bone marrow were antigen specific 7 days post intracranial TMEV infection. Over 70% of these CD8 T cells were located outside of the vasculature as determined by IV labeling. Importantly, continuous treatment with FTY720, which sequesters T cells outside of the blood, did not eliminate antigen specific CD8 T cells in any bone marrow compartment. CD8 T cells in the bone marrow established durable memory following viral clearance and were reactivated upon cognate antigen reencounter. Both acute TMEV infection and antigen specific reactivation caused an increase in lineage −, Sca-1 +, ckit +(LSK) cells in the bone marrow. This LSK dysregulation was abrogated upon CD8 T cell depletion. We conclude that brain viral infections induce in situ effector and memory T cell responses within the bone marrow compartment. Both acute and memory recall CD8 T cell responses cause stem cell dysregulation. Our data hence paves the way for crucial studies of bone marrow resident antigen specific CD8 T cells in health and disease. Supported by grants from NIH (K99NS117799-01A1 (KA), R01NS103212 (AJJ), and RF1NS122174(AJJ)
bone marrow,viral infection,cell,antigen
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