White-box Compiler Fuzzing Empowered by Large Language Models


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Compiler correctness is crucial, as miscompilation falsifying the program behaviors can lead to serious consequences. In the literature, fuzzing has been extensively studied to uncover compiler defects. However, compiler fuzzing remains challenging: Existing arts focus on black- and grey-box fuzzing, which generates tests without sufficient understanding of internal compiler behaviors. As such, they often fail to construct programs to exercise conditions of intricate optimizations. Meanwhile, traditional white-box techniques are computationally inapplicable to the giant codebase of compilers. Recent advances demonstrate that Large Language Models (LLMs) excel in code generation/understanding tasks and have achieved state-of-the-art performance in black-box fuzzing. Nonetheless, prompting LLMs with compiler source-code information remains a missing piece of research in compiler testing. To this end, we propose WhiteFox, the first white-box compiler fuzzer using LLMs with source-code information to test compiler optimization. WhiteFox adopts a dual-model framework: (i) an analysis LLM examines the low-level optimization source code and produces requirements on the high-level test programs that can trigger the optimization; (ii) a generation LLM produces test programs based on the summarized requirements. Additionally, optimization-triggering tests are used as feedback to further enhance the test generation on the fly. Our evaluation on four popular compilers shows that WhiteFox can generate high-quality tests to exercise deep optimizations requiring intricate conditions, practicing up to 80 more optimizations than state-of-the-art fuzzers. To date, WhiteFox has found in total 96 bugs, with 80 confirmed as previously unknown and 51 already fixed. Beyond compiler testing, WhiteFox can also be adapted for white-box fuzzing of other complex, real-world software systems in general.
large language models,language models,white-box
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