Relevance-based Infilling for Natural Language Counterfactuals

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 32ND ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, CIKM 2023(2023)

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摘要
Counterfactual explanations are a natural way for humans to gain understanding and trust in the outcomes of complex machine learning algorithms. In the context of natural language processing, generating counterfactuals is particularly challenging as it requires the generated text to be fluent, grammatically correct, and meaningful. In this study, we improve the current state of the art for the generation of such counterfactual explanations for text classifiers. Our approach, named RELITC (Relevance-based Infilling for Textual Counterfactuals), builds on the idea of masking a fraction of text tokens based on their importance in a given prediction task and employs a novel strategy, based on the entropy of their associated probability distributions, to determine the infilling order of these tokens. Our method uses less time than competing methods to generate counterfactuals that require less changes, are closer to the original text and preserve its content better, while being competitive in terms of fluency. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on four different datasets and show the quality of its outcomes in a comparison with human generated counterfactuals.(1)
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关键词
NLP,masked language model,explainability,counterfactuals
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