Characteristics of distance education interventions and related outcomes in primary school children during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review

PloS one(2023)

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The COVID-19 pandemic containment measures such as school closures remarkably disrupt the educational system, from in-person learning to remote or distance education with different interventions. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of interventions in remote or distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate the outcomes of each intervention. A systematic review was conducted between October 2021 and May 2022 using four databases. Finally, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included for data analysis. Most of the interventions were synchronous student-centered approaches followed by asynchronous student-centered approaches and mixed-learning through online channels such as desktop- and web-based modality. Remote or distance education is effective in academic development in any learning approach while having mixed effects in student attitudes and perceptions. Academic-related behaviors were most engaged by students in synchronous student-centered approaches. Finally, difficulties or burdens, and mental health or social interaction were similar for all learning approaches in technological problems and support systems from families and teachers. Synchronous student-centered approaches should be the main method of education, but other approaches can be used to complement based on the students' needs. Finally, educational infrastructure and support from teachers and parents are also necessary in remote or distance education. Further studies are needed to focus on primary school students, especially in low-income regions, and apply a randomized study design.
distance education interventions,pandemic,primary school children,systematic review
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