Observation of impurity accumulation and its compatibility with high plasma performance in W7-X

D. Zhang, B. Buttenschoen, S. Jablonski,M. Kubkowska, O. Ford, J. A. Alcuson,C. D. Beidler, R. Burhenn, M. N. A. Beurskens,A. Langenberg, N. Pablant, F. Reimold, K. Rahbarnia,H. M. Smith,Th Wegner, G. Wurden, S. A. Bozhenkov, Y. Feng,K. J. Brunner, G. Fuchert, Y. Gao, J. Geiger, L. Giannone, U. Hoefel, M. Hirsch, Z. Huang,J. Knauer, T. Kremeyer, M. Krychowiak, S. Kwak, H. P. Laqua, R. Laube, U. Neuner, E. Pasch, A. Pavone,A. von Stechow, J. Svensson, H. Thomsen

PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION(2023)

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摘要
At the W7-X stellarator, the bolometer system has measured an intensive radiation zone in the inner plasma region (at a normalized radius rho similar to 0.3-0.4) in the hydrogen plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating; it differs from the normal plasma radiation distribution with an edge-localized emission zone. Spectroscopic diagnostics have recorded high-Z elements such as iron. This phenomenon happens in the plasma phases after gas supply turn-off, which results in all impurity relevant diagnostic signals increasing for several seconds. Despite the enhancement of the core radiation, the plasma energy confinement is improved. A transport analysis shows that this impurity radiation behavior is associated with a low diffusion coefficient (D similar to 0.02 m(2) s(-1)) and a reversal of the convection around the radial position of the emission peak, which, under normal conditions, separates the zones of outward convection in the central (|V| similar to 0.1 m s(-1)) and inward convection in the outer region (|V| similar to 0.3 m s(-1)). An impurity accumulation around this radial position has been identified. The transport coefficients obtained are comparable with the theoretical predictions of collisional impurity transport. In the plasma phases studied, both impurity and energy confinement are enhanced. The mechanism responsible for the improvement is believed to be a reduction of micro-instabilities associated with the observed steepening of the density profile, initiated by a low edge plasma density (<1.0 x 10(19) m(-3)) after switching off the gas fueling. The normalized temperature and density gradients fulfil the condition for the suppression of ITG turbulence.
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high plasma performance,impurity accumulation
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