Meta-theorems for Parameterized Streaming Algorithms

arXiv (Cornell University)(2023)

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The streaming model was introduced to parameterized complexity independently by Fafianie and Kratsch [MFCS14] and by Chitnis, Cormode, Hajiaghayi and Monemizadeh [SODA15]. Subsequently, it was broadened by Chitnis, Cormode, Esfandiari, Hajiaghayi and Monemizadeh [SPAA15] and by Chitnis, Cormode, Esfandiari, Hajiaghayi, McGregor, Monemizadeh and Vorotnikova [SODA16]. Despite its strong motivation, the applicability of the streaming model to central problems in parameterized complexity has remained, for almost a decade, quite limited. Indeed, due to simple $\Omega(n)$-space lower bounds for many of these problems, the $k^{O(1)}\cdot {\rm polylog}(n)$-space requirement in the model is too strict. Thus, we explore {\em semi-streaming} algorithms for parameterized graph problems, and present the first systematic study of this topic. Crucially, we aim to construct succinct representations of the input on which optimal post-processing time complexity can be achieved. - We devise meta-theorems specifically designed for parameterized streaming and demonstrate their applicability by obtaining the first $k^{O(1)}\cdot n\cdot {\rm polylog}(n)$-space streaming algorithms for well-studied problems such as Feedback Vertex Set on Tournaments, Cluster Vertex Deletion, Proper Interval Vertex Deletion and Block Vertex Deletion. In the process, we demonstrate a fundamental connection between semi-streaming algorithms for recognizing graphs in a graph class H and semi-streaming algorithms for the problem of vertex deletion into H. - We present an algorithmic machinery for obtaining streaming algorithms for cut problems and exemplify this by giving the first $k^{O(1)}\cdot n\cdot {\rm polylog}(n)$-space streaming algorithms for Graph Bipartitization, Multiway Cut and Subset Feedback Vertex Set.
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