Sub-quadratic scaling real-space random-phase approximation correlation energy calculations for periodic systems with numerical atomic orbitals

Rong Shi,Peize Lin, Min-Ye Zhang,Lixin He,Xinguo Ren

arXiv (Cornell University)(2023)

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The random phase approximation (RPA) as formulated as an orbital-dependent, fifth-rung functional within the density functional theory (DFT) framework offers a promising approach for calculating the ground-state energies and the derived properties of real materials. Its widespread use to large-size, complex materials is however impeded by the significantly increased computational cost, compared to lower-rung functionals. The standard implementation exhibits an $\mathcal{O}(N^4)$-scaling behavior with respect to system size $N$. In this work, we develop a low-scaling RPA algorithm for periodic systems, based on the numerical atomic orbital (NAO) basis-set framework and a localized variant of the resolution of identity (RI) approximation. The rate-determining step for RPA calculations -- the evaluation of non-interacting response function matrix, is reduced from $\mathcal{O}(N^4)$ to $\mathcal{O}(N^2)$ by just exploiting the sparsity of the RI expansion coefficients, resultant from localized RI (LRI) scheme and the strict locality of NAOs. The computational cost of this step can be further reduced to linear scaling if the decay behavior of the Green's function in real space can be further taken into account. Benchmark calculations against existing $\textbf k$-space based implementation confirms the validity and high numerical precision of the present algorithm and implementation. The new RPA algorithm allows us to readily handle three-dimensional, closely-packed solid state materials with over 1000 atoms. The algorithm and numerical techniques developed in this work also have implications for developing low-scaling algorithms for other correlated methods to be applicable to large-scale extended materials.
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