Intravenous vs. intraosseous vascular access during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – protocol for a randomised clinical trial

Resuscitation Plus(2023)

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Objective: During cardiac arrest, current guidelines recommend attempting intravenous access first and to consider intraosseous access if intra-venous access is unsuccessful or impossible. However, these recommendations are only based on very low-certainty evidence. Therefore, the "Intravenous vs Intraosseous Vascular Access During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest" (IVIO) trial aims to determine whether there is a difference in patient outcomes depending on the type of vascular access attempted during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This current article describes the clin-ical IVIO trial.Methods: The IVIO trial is an investigator-initiated, randomised trial of intravenous vs. intraosseous vascular access during adult non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Denmark. The intervention will consist of minimum two attempts (if unsuccessful on the first attempt) to successfully establish intravenous or intraosseous vascular access during cardiac arrest. The intraosseous group will be further randomised to the humeral or tibial site. The primary outcome is sustained return of spontaneous circulation and key secondary outcomes include survival and survival with a favourable neurological outcome at 30 days. A total of 1,470 patients will be included.Results: The trial started in March 2022 and the last patient is anticipated to be included in the spring of 2024. The primary results will be reported after 90-day follow-up and are anticipated in mid-2024.Conclusion: The current article describes the design of the Danish IVIO trial. The findings of this trial will help inform future guidelines for selecting the optimal vascular access route during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
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