Regulating Antifreeze Activity through Water: Latent Functions of the Sugars of Antifreeze Glycoprotein Revealed by Total Chemical Synthesis.

Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)(2023)

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Antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP), which inhibits the freezing of water, is highly O-glycosylated with a disaccharide, d-Galβ1-3-d-GalNAcα (GalGalNAc). To elucidate the function of the sugar residues for antifreeze activity at the molecular level, we conducted a total chemical synthesis of partially sugar deleted AFGP derivatives, and unnatural forms of AFGPs incorporating glucose (Glc)-type sugars instead of galactose (Gal)-type sugars. These elaborated AFGP derivatives demonstrated that the stereochemistry of each sugar residue on AFGPs precisely correlates with the antifreeze activity. A hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiment using synthetic AFGPs revealed a different dynamic behavior of water around sugar residues depending on the sugar structures. These results indicate that sugar residues on AFGP form a unique dynamic water phase that disturbs the absorbance of water molecules onto the ice surface, thereby inhibiting freezing.
antifreeze,glycoproteins,hydration,total chemical synthesis
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