Dynamic locational marginal emissions via implicit differentiation

Lucas Fuentes Valenzuela,Anthony Degleris,Abbas El Gamal大牛学者,Marco Pavone大牛学者,Ram Rajagopal


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Locational marginal emissions rates (LMEs) estimate the rate of change in emissions due to a small change in demand in a transmission network, and are an important metric for assessing the impact of various energy policies or interventions. In this work, we develop a new method for computing the LMEs of an electricity system via implicit differentiation. The method is model agnostic; it can compute LMEs for any convex optimization-based dispatch model, including some of the complex dispatch models employed by system operators in real electricity systems. In particular, this method lets us derive LMEs for dynamic dispatch models, i.e., models with temporal constraints such as ramping and storage. Using real data from the U.S. electricity system, we validate the proposed method against a state-of-the-art merit-order-based method and show that incorporating dynamic constraints improves model accuracy by 8.2%. Finally, we use simulations on a realistic 240-bus model of WECC to demonstrate the flexibility of the tool and the importance of incorporating dynamic constraints. Namely, static LMEs and dynamic LMEs exhibit a normalized average RMS deviation of 28.40%, implying dynamic constraints are essential to accurately modeling emissions rates.
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