Merging Microwave, Optical, and Reanalysis Data for 1 Km Daily Soil Moisture by Triple Collocation.

Remote. Sens.(2023)

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High-spatiotemporal resolution soil moisture (SM) plays an essential role in optimized irrigation, agricultural droughts, and hydrometeorological model simulations. However, producing high-spatiotemporal seamless soil moisture products is challenging due to the inability of optical bands to penetrate clouds and the coarse spatiotemporal resolution of microwave and reanalysis products. To address these issues, this study proposed a framework for multi-source data merging based on the triple collocation (TC) method with an explicit physical mechanism, which was dedicated to generating seamless 1 km daily soil moisture products. Current merging techniques based on the TC method often lack seamless daily optical data input. To remedy this deficiency, our study performed a spatiotemporal reconstruction on MODIS LST and NDVI, and retrieved seamless daily optical soil moisture products. Then, the optical-derived sm1, microwave-retrieved sm2 (ESA CCI combined), and reanalysis sm3 (CLDAS) were matched by the cumulative distribution function (CDF) method to eliminate bias, and their weights were determined by the TC method. Finally, the least squares algorithm and the significance judgment were adopted to complete the merging. Although the CLDAS soil moisture presented anomalies over several stations, our proposed method can detect and reduce this impact by minimizing its weight, which shows the robustness of the method. This framework was implemented in the Naqu region, and the results showed that the merged products captured the temporal variability of the SM and depicted spatial information in detail; the validation with the in situ measurement obtained an average ubRMSE of 0.046 m³/m³. Additionally, this framework is transferrable to any area with measured sites for better agricultural and hydrological applications.
soil moisture,triple collocation,spatiotemporal interpolation,ESA CCI SM,MODIS,CLDAS
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