Maturation and specialization of group 2 innate lymphoid cells through the lung-gut axis

Nature communications(2022)

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Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are abundant in mucosal tissues. They serve critical functions in anti-pathogen response and tissue homeostasis. However, the heterogenous composition of ILCs in mucosal sites and their various maturation trajectories are less well known. In this study, we characterize ILC types and functions from both the lung and the small intestine, and identify their tissue-specific markers. We find that ILC2s residing in the lung express CCR2, whereas intestinal ILC2s express CCR4. Through the use of CCR2 and CCR4 reporter mice, we show that ILC2s undergo translocation via the lung-gut axis upon IL-33 treatment. This trajectory of ILC2s is also observed at the postnatal stage. Allergen-induced activation of lung ILC2s affects the homeostasis of gut ILC2s. Together, our findings implicate that ILCs display tissue-specific features in both the lung and gut, and ILC2s mature along the lung-gut axis in particular homeostatic and inflammatory conditions.
Chemokines,Gene regulation in immune cells,Immunological surveillance,Innate lymphoid cells,Mucosal immunology,Science,Humanities and Social Sciences,multidisciplinary
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