Reconstruct SMAP brightness temperature scanning gaps over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATION AND GEOINFORMATION(2022)

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摘要
Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite was used to monitor global soil moisture and freeze-thaw state using surface brightness temperature (TB). However, due to the limitation of scanning width and shifting track, the daily TB observation had stripe gaps in varying degrees, which imped scientific applications of SMAP official product. To solve this issue, we proposed a temporal fitting algorithm to produce daily seamless TB data over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) from 2015 to 2021. This method was composed of two steps: (1) overall time trend fitting which used a spline function to fit the overall mean time trend for each pixel from 2015 to 2021; (2) daily variation correction which accounted for several influential factors including surface temperature, precipitation, and vegetation to establish an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model for predicting daily variation of TB in numerous time slices. Consequently, the missing TB observation was reconstructed by combining the overall temporal trend and daily variation. A 10-fold cross-validation and product comparison were carried out to validate the robustness of the proposed method. For cross-validation, we randomly removed available SMAP observations in certain periods as unavailable, and then compared the reconstructed values with the removed practical ones. The cross-validation results indicated the reconstructed TB agreed well with actual SMAP TB, with a high overall coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.94) and low RMSE (RMSE = 3.7 K), implying the desirable performance of our proposed method. By comparison with Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) TB, the reconstructed data had an approximate performance with actual SMAP TB. Furthermore, the effects of surface temperature and precipitation on TB in different periods (frozen and unfrozen) over QTP were also analyzed. Our method has the potential to generate seamless SMAP products.
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关键词
SMAP brightness temperature,Gap-filling,Temporal-fitting,Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
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