Opportunities and challenges in delivering biologics for Alzheimer’s disease by low-intensity ultrasound

Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews(2022)

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Low-intensity ultrasound combined with intravenously injected microbubbles (US+MB) is a novel treatment modality for brain disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), safely and transiently allowing therapeutic agents to overcome the blood–brain barrier (BBB) that constitutes a major barrier for therapeutic agents. Here, we first provide an update on immunotherapies in AD and how US+MB has been applied to AD mouse models and in clinical trials, considering the ultrasound and microbubble parameter space. In the second half of the review, we compare different in vitro BBB models and discuss strategies for combining US+MB with BBB modulators (targeting molecules such as claudin-5), and highlight the insight provided by super-resolution microscopy. Finally, we conclude with a short discussion on how in vitro findings can inform the design of animal studies, and how the insight gained may aid treatment optimization in the clinical ultrasound space.
Alzheimer’s disease,Amyloid-β,Blood–brain barrier,Drug delivery,Focused (low-intensity) ultrasound,Immunotherapy,Microbubbles,Super-resolution microscopy,Tau,Tight junction
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