Building Practical High‐voltage Cathode Materials for Lithium‐ion Batteries

Advanced Materials(2022)

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It has long been a global imperative to develop high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) to meet the ever-growing electric vehicle market. One of the most effective strategies for boosting the energy density of LIBs is to increase the output voltage, which largely depends upon the cathode materials. As the most-promising cathodes for high-voltage LIBs (>4 V vs Li/Li+), four major categories of cathodes including lithium-rich layered oxides, nickel-rich layered oxides, spinel oxides, and high-voltage polyanionic compounds still encounter severe challenges to realize the improvement of output voltage while maintaining high capacity, fast rate capability, and long service life. This review focuses on the key links in the development of high-voltage cathode materials from the lab to industrialization. First, the failure mechanisms of the four kinds of materials are clarified, and the optimization strategies, particularly solutions that are easy for large-scale production, are considered. Then, to bridge the gap between lab and industry, the cost management, safety assessment, practical battery-performance evaluation, and sustainability of the battery technologies, are discussed. Finally, tough challenges and promising strategies for the commercialization of high-voltage cathode materials are summarized to promote the large-scale application of LIBs with high energy densities.
failure mechanisms,high-voltage cathodes,large-scale applications,lithium-ion batteries,sustainability
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