Comprehensive review of clinical symptoms and complications in association with COVID-19

Yasmin Khajenoori, Nitya Murali, Kaitlin Ordonio, Kimiya Ghassemzadeh, Michelle Mar


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Alongside the Coronavirus disease of 2019, COVID-19, are specific symptoms and complications that have yet to be comprehensively organized. This brief report reviews the prevalence of symptoms, complications, and the rate of which those occur in studies that overlook patients with the Coronavirus disease of 2019. In order to distinguish which symptoms were most prevalent, studies from China and the United States were reviewed. Fever, cough, and dyspnea were the most common symptoms among both countries. Other symptoms include headache, myalgia, diarrhea (acute gastroenteritis), fatigue, nausea, sputum production, hemoptysis, sore throat, rhinorrhea, and chest pain. In addition to symptoms, specific respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological complications and the prevalence of these complications in patients that tested positive for COVID-19 were assessed. The respiratory complications observed include Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Cardiovascular complications consist of Cardiovascular Disease, Coronary Heart Disease, hypertension, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), Kawasaki Disease, and myocardial injury. Common neurological complications were grouped based on if they were CNS-related or PNS-related, and in addition to these complications, encephalopathies, ischaemic strokes, and skeletal muscle complications were also considered. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic is still fairly new, the symptoms and complications are not limited to the ones observed in this report. The severity and prevalence of COVID-19 symptoms and complications highlight the importance of preventative measures, such as social distancing and face coverings. Even more, the prevalence of co-existing complications indicate the urgency of further research on how physicians should approach and treat such patients accordingly, to minimize risk and ultimately, lower the mortality rate.
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