Increased delta power as a scalp marker of epileptic activity: a simultaneous scalp and intracranial electroencephalography study

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY(2022)

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摘要
Background and purpose The purpose was to evaluate whether intracranial interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) that are not visible on the scalp are associated with changes in the frequency spectrum on scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs). Methods Simultaneous scalp high-density EEG and intracranial EEG recordings were recorded in nine patients undergoing pre-surgical invasive recordings for pharmaco-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Epochs with hippocampal IED visible on intracranial EEG (ic-IED) but not on scalp EEG were selected, as well as control epochs without ic-IED. Welch's power spectral density was computed for each scalp electrode and for each subject; the power spectral density was further averaged across the canonical frequency bands and compared between the two conditions with and without ic-IED. For each patient the peak frequency in the delta band (the significantly strongest frequency band in all patients) was determined during periods of ic-IED. The five electrodes showing strongest power at the peak frequency were also determined. Results It was found that intracranial IEDs are associated with an increase in delta power on scalp EEGs, in particular at a frequency >= 1.4 Hz. Electrodes showing slow frequency power changes associated with IEDs were consistent with the hemispheric lateralization of IEDs. Electrodes with maximum power of slow activity were not limited to temporal regions but also involved frontal (bilateral or unilateral) regions. Conclusions In patients with a clinical picture suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy, the presence of delta slowing >= 1.4 Hz in anterior temporal regions can represent a scalp marker of hippocampal IEDs. To our best knowledge this is the first study that demonstrates the co-occurrence of ic-IED and increased delta power.
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关键词
delta power, intracranial IED, LRDA, mesial temporal IED, rhythmic delta activity
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