In Vitro Anticancer Effects Of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaf Extract And Green-Synthesised Silver Nanoparticles


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Purpose: Vernonia amygdalina (VA) is a traditional African herbal medicine that has been reported to possess anticancer properties. However, the anticancer properties of VA silver nanoparticles have not been studied. The aim of the study was to examine and evaluate the anticancer activities of VA leaf extracts and VA silver nanoparticles on the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.Methods: VA leaves were extracted using sequential extraction assisted with ultrasound using three different solvents: ethanol, 50% ethanol, and deionized water. The silver nanoparticles were synthesised with VA aqueous extract.Results: The ethanol extract and VA silver nanoparticles inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation with an average half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 67 mu g/mL and 6.11 mu g/mL, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. The ethanol extract and VA silver nanoparticles also caused G1 phase cell cycle arrest, induced apoptosis and nuclear fragmentation in MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: VA ethanol extracts and VA silver nanoparticles decreased the cell viability in MCF-7 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis and causing DNA damage. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of VA leaf extracts and VA silver nanoparticles. This study is the first to report on the anticancer activity of VA silver nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.
Vernonia amygdalina, MCF-7, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, silver nanoparticles
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