Making a splash with fabrics in hydrophilic sphere entry

Journal of Fluids and Structures(2020)

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Splash dynamics associated with impacts of solid projectiles into aqueous pools are traditionally investigated with respect to impactor geometry, velocity, and surface roughness. Fluid surface alteration in some instances, may be more easily accomplished for the tuning of splashes. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, smooth, free-falling, hydrophilic steel spheres impact a quiescent liquid pool for Weber numbers in the range of 430−2700. Spheres strike fabrics resting atop the fluid surface which are either punctured or remain intact. As spheres strike fabrics, flow separation is tripped at low speeds which would otherwise not produce air-entraining cavities. Punctured fabrics suppress splash crowns normally seen for cavity-producing impacts while intact fabrics generate deeper cavities, higher Worthington jets, and pronounced splash crowns. Some fabrics, both punctured and intact reduce drag with respect to clean surface impacts by providing the drag-reducing benefits of flow separation while not offering a high inertial penalty. Such observations augur well for interfacial fluid–structure interactions where splashes warrant control.
Worthington jets,Cavity dynamics,Drag coefficient,Failure stress,Splash metrics,Water entry
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