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We have presented an efficient technique for end-to-end out-of-core construction and view-dependent visualization of very large surface models on commodity graphics platforms

Coz: finding code that counts with causal profiling.

Commun. ACM, no. 6 (2018): 91-99

Cited by: 80|Views367
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Abstract

Improving performance is a central concern for software developers. To locate optimization opportunities, developers rely on software profilers. However, these profilers only report where programs spent their time: optimizing that code may have no impact on performance. Past profilers thus both waste developer time and make it difficult f...More

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Introduction
  • The authors describe an efficient technique for out-of-core construction and accurate view-dependent visualization of very large surface models.
  • The representation is constructed during a fine-to-coarse simplification of the surface contained in diamonds.
  • Appropriate boundary constraints are introduced in the simplification to ensure that all conforming selective subdivisions of the tetrahedron hierarchy lead to correctly matching surface patches.
  • For each frame at runtime, the hierarchy is traversed coarse-to-fine to select diamonds of the appropriate resolution given the view parameters.
  • The resulting system can interatively render high quality views of out-of-core models of hundreds of millions of triangles at over 40Hz on current commodity graphics platforms
Highlights
  • We describe an efficient technique for out-of-core construction and accurate view-dependent visualization of very large surface models
  • We have presented an efficient technique for end-to-end out-of-core construction and view-dependent visualization of very large surface models on commodity graphics platforms
Results
  • An experimental software library and a rendering application supporting the technique have been implemented on Linux using C++ with OpenGL and the MPICH MPI implementation.
  • The authors' speed is currently slower
  • This is mainly because the authors generate a full multiresolution structure, as opposed to a single small model, and simplification is only a single step of diamond processing, that includes cache-coherent stripification, mesh compression, and optimal bound computation, each costing as much as simplification.
  • Not included in the table is the maximum resident memory usage of the method, which is low and constant for workers (26 MB each) and variable for the master process, due to the in-core graph layout data structure and to disk buffer caches used by the operating system
Conclusion
  • The authors have presented an efficient technique for end-to-end out-of-core construction and view-dependent visualization of very large surface models on commodity graphics platforms.
  • The proposed solution consists in an innovative combination of volumetric subdivision, mesh compression and simplification, out-of-core data management, and batched rendering techniques, resulting in an unprecedented spatiotemporal quality in the interactive rendering of massive models.
  • The authors plan to explore more aggressive and lossy compression techniques and to investigate error metrics taking into account the effect of simplification on the shading of the surface.
  • Given the performance of the method, the authors are confident that multi-pass or vertex/fragment program techniques will become readily applicable to gigantic datasets
Tables
  • Table1: Numerical results for out-of-core construction. Tests performed on a network of PCs. All times are in seconds
Download tables as Excel
Related work
  • Rapidly rendering adaptive representations of large models is a very active research area. In the following, we will discuss the approaches that are most closely related with our work. Readers may refer to recent surveys (e.g., [Chiang et al 2003]) for further details.

    Out-of-core mesh simplification. Various techniques have been presented to face the problem of huge mesh simplification. With the exception of memoryless clustering approaches [Lindstrom 2000; Lindstrom 2003] and stream-based methods [Wu and Kobbelt 2003; Isenburg et al 2003], most of these techniques, such as Hoppe’s hierarchical method for digital terrain management [1998] and the octree based structure OEMM [Cignoni et al 2003a], are based on some kind of mesh partitioning and subsequent independent simplification. Hoppe hierarchically divides the mesh in blocks, simplifies each block while freezing borders and then traverses the block hierarchy bottom-up by merging sibling cells and again simplifying. In this approach some of the borders remain unchanged until the very last simplification step. OEMM avoids this kind of problem, but it does not build a multiresolution structure. On the other hand, BDAM [Cignoni et al 2003c] allows both the independent processing of small sub-portions of the whole mesh and the construction of a multiresolution structure, but is limited to height fields. Our work generalizes this approach to arbitrary surfaces, and parallelizes the simplification process in order to efficiently build a multiresolution structure for very large meshes.
Funding
  • This research is partially supported by the VPLANET project (EU RTD contract IST-2000-28095)
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