Invertible Diffusion Models for Compressed Sensing

Bin Chen, Zhenyu Zhang, Weiqi Li,Chen Zhao, Jiwen Yu,Shijie Zhao, Jie Chen,Jian Zhang


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While deep neural networks (NN) significantly advance image compressed sensing (CS) by improving reconstruction quality, the necessity of training current CS NNs from scratch constrains their effectiveness and hampers rapid deployment. Although recent methods utilize pre-trained diffusion models for image reconstruction, they struggle with slow inference and restricted adaptability to CS. To tackle these challenges, this paper proposes Invertible Diffusion Models (IDM), a novel efficient, end-to-end diffusion-based CS method. IDM repurposes a large-scale diffusion sampling process as a reconstruction model, and finetunes it end-to-end to recover original images directly from CS measurements, moving beyond the traditional paradigm of one-step noise estimation learning. To enable such memory-intensive end-to-end finetuning, we propose a novel two-level invertible design to transform both (1) the multi-step sampling process and (2) the noise estimation U-Net in each step into invertible networks. As a result, most intermediate features are cleared during training to reduce up to 93.8 develop a set of lightweight modules to inject measurements into noise estimator to further facilitate reconstruction. Experiments demonstrate that IDM outperforms existing state-of-the-art CS networks by up to 2.64dB in PSNR. Compared to the recent diffusion model-based approach DDNM, our IDM achieves up to 10.09dB PSNR gain and 14.54 times faster inference.
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