Information Flow Control in Machine Learning through Modular Model Architecture


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In today's machine learning (ML) models, any part of the training data can affect its output. This lack of control for information flow from training data to model output is a major obstacle in training models on sensitive data when access control only allows individual users to access a subset of data. To enable secure machine learning for access controlled data, we propose the notion of information flow control for machine learning, and develop a secure Transformer-based language model based on the Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) architecture. The secure MoE architecture controls information flow by limiting the influence of training data from each security domain to a single expert module, and only enabling a subset of experts at inference time based on an access control policy. The evaluation using a large corpus of text data shows that the proposed MoE architecture has minimal (1.9%) performance overhead and can significantly improve model accuracy (up to 37%) by enabling training on access-controlled data.
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