Energy Conservation in Passive Optical Networks: A Tutorial and Survey

IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials(2024)

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Abstract
The Passive Optical Network (PON) has been evolving continuously in terms of architecture and capacity to keep up with the demand for high-speed Internet access in the access network segment. Recently, integration of Software-Defined Networking (SDN), which provides programmable and (logically) centralized network control, with PON has attracted intensive research interest to further enhance PON performance and reduce operational and capital expenditure. Although PON is regarded as an energy-efficient access network solution, it would be a major contributor for increasing energy consumption in the access network segment because of its higher penetration rate than other access network technologies. Over the past several years, the major standardization bodies like IEEE and ITU-T, and research communities have engaged in introducing energy-efficient PON solutions. This article familiarizes readers with PON evolution in terms of capacity, architecture, and its integration with virtualization and SDN based control. We present a comprehensive survey of the energy conservation research efforts in PON starting from conventional PON to SDN based PON leveraging virtual and physical network functions. This article also presents contemporary energy-efficient standardization activities in IEEE and ITU-T. To the best of our knowledge, to date, this article is the first most comprehensive survey on energy saving research and standardization on PON. We summarize the lessons learned from the recent advancements, identify important challenges ahead and outline several future research directions that can contribute to further advancement of energy-efficient PON.
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Key words
Passive optical network,software-defined networking,energy-efficient PON,sleep mode,virtual and physical network functions
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