A Unified Debugging Approach via LLM-Based Multi-Agent Synergy


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Tremendous efforts have been devoted to automating software debugging, a time-consuming process involving fault localization and repair generation. Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown great potential in automated debugging. However, we identified three challenges posed to traditional and LLM-based debugging tools: 1) the upstream imperfection of fault localization affects the downstream repair, 2) the deficiency in handling complex logic errors, and 3) the ignorance of program contexts. In this context, we propose the first automated, unified debugging framework, FixAgent, via LLM agent synergy. FixAgent can perform end-to-end localization, repair, and analysis of bugs. Our insight is that LLMs can benefit from general software engineering principles recognized by human developers in debugging, such as rubber duck debugging, enabling a better understanding of program functionality and logic bugs. Hence, we create three designs inspired by rubber ducking to address these challenges. They are agent specialization and synergy, key variable tracking, and program context comprehension, which request LLMs to provide explicit explanations and force them to focus on crucial program logic information. Experiments on the widely used dataset QuixBugs show that FixAgent correctly fixes 79 out of 80 bugs, 9 of which have never been fixed. It also plausibly patches 1.9X more defects than the best-performing repair tool on CodeFlaws, even with no bug location information and fewer than 0.6 times. On average, FixAgent increases about 20 compared to its base model using different LLMs, showing the effectiveness of our designs. Moreover, the correctness rate of FixAgent reaches remarkably 97.26 of the existing approaches.
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