Biomimetic Nanovesicles as a Dual Gene Delivery System for the Synergistic Gene Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS nano(2024)

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Abstract
The association between dysfunctional microglia and amyloid-β (Aβ) is a fundamental pathological event and increases the speed of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additionally, the pathogenesis of AD is intricate and a single drug may not be enough to achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Herein, we reported a facile and effective gene therapy strategy for the modulation of microglia function and intervention of Aβ anabolism by ROS-responsive biomimetic exosome-liposome hybrid nanovesicles (designated as TSEL). The biomimetic nanovesicles codelivery β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) siRNA (siBACE1) and TREM2 plasmid (pTREM2) gene drug efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier and enhance the drug accumulation at AD lesions with the help of exosomes homing ability and angiopep-2 peptides. Specifically, an upregulation of TREM2 expression can reprogram microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype while also restoring its capacity to phagocytose Aβ and its nerve repair function. In addition, siRNA reduces the production of Aβ plaques at the source by knocking out the BACE1 gene, which is expected to further enhance the therapeutic effect of AD. The in vivo study suggests that TSEL through the synergistic effect of two gene drugs can ameliorate APP/PS1 mice cognitive impairment by regulating the activated microglial phenotype, reducing the accumulation of Aβ, and preventing the retriggering of neuroinflammation. This strategy employs biomimetic nanovesicles for the delivery of dual nucleic acids, achieving synergistic gene therapy for AD, thus offering more options for the treatment of AD.
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