Personalized Wireless Federated Learning for Large Language Models


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Large Language Models (LLMs) have revolutionized natural language processing tasks. However, their deployment in wireless networks still face challenges, i.e., a lack of privacy and security protection mechanisms. Federated Learning (FL) has emerged as a promising approach to address these challenges. Yet, it suffers from issues including inefficient handling with big and heterogeneous data, resource-intensive training, and high communication overhead. To tackle these issues, we first compare different learning stages and their features of LLMs in wireless networks. Next, we introduce two personalized wireless federated fine-tuning methods with low communication overhead, i.e., (1) Personalized Federated Instruction Tuning (PFIT), which employs reinforcement learning to fine-tune local LLMs with diverse reward models to achieve personalization; (2) Personalized Federated Task Tuning (PFTT), which can leverage global adapters and local Low-Rank Adaptations (LoRA) to collaboratively fine-tune local LLMs, where the local LoRAs can be applied to achieve personalization without aggregation. Finally, we perform simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed two methods and comprehensively discuss open issues.
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