S5Mars: Semi-Supervised Learning for Mars Semantic Segmentation

IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing(2024)

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Abstract
Deep learning has become a powerful tool for Mars exploration. Mars terrain semantic segmentation is an important Martian vision task, which is the base of rover autonomous planning and safe driving. However, there is a lack of sufficient detailed and high-confidence data annotations, which are exactly required by most deep learning methods to obtain a good model. To address this problem, we propose our solution from the perspective of joint data and method design. We first present a new dataset S 5 Mars for Semi-SuperviSed learning on Mars Semantic Segmentation, which contains 6K high-resolution images and is sparsely annotated based on confidence, ensuring the high quality of labels. Then to learn from this sparse data, we propose a semi-supervised learning (SSL) framework for Mars image semantic segmentation, to learn representations from limited labeled data. Different from the existing SSL methods which are mostly targeted at the Earth image data, our method takes into account Mars data characteristics. Specifically, we first investigate the impact of current widely used natural image augmentations on Mars images. Based on the analysis, we then proposed two novel and effective augmentations for SSL of Mars segmentation, AugIN and SAM-Mix , which serve as strong augmentations to boost the model performance. Meanwhile, to fully leverage the unlabeled data, we introduce a soft-to-hard consistency learning strategy, learning from different targets based on prediction confidence. Experimental results show that our method can outperform state-of-the-art SSL approaches remarkably. Our proposed dataset is available at https://jhang2020.github.io/S5Mars.github.io/.
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Key words
Mars vision tasks,terrain segmentation,image semantic segmentation,semi-supervised learning
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