302 Diagnostic Evidence Gauge of Spatial Transcriptomics (DEGAS-ST): Using transfer learning to map clinical data to spatial transcriptomics in prostate cancer

Journal of Clinical and Translational Science(2024)

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摘要
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The 'field effect' is a concept in pathology that pre-malignant tissue changes forecast health. Spatial transcriptomics could detect these changes earlier than histopathology, suggesting new early cancer screening methods. Knowing how normal tissue damage relates to cancer’s origin and progression may improve long-term outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We trained DEGAS, our machine learning framework, with prostate cancer data, combining both general cancer patterns and in-depth genetic information from individual tumors. The Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) shows how gene patterns in tumors relate to patient outcomes, emphasizing the differences between tumors from different patients (intertumor). On the other hand, spatial transcriptomics (ST) shows the genetic variety within a single tumor (intratumor) but has limited samples, making it hard to know which genetic differences are important for treatment. DEGAS bridges these areas by finding tissue sections that resemble those in TCGA profiles and are key indicators of patient survival. DEGAS serves as a valuable tool for generating clinically-important hypotheses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: DEGAS identified benign-appearing glands in a normal prostate as being highly associated with poor progression-free survival. These glands have transcriptional signatures similar to high-grade prostate cancer. We confirmed this finding in a separate prostate cancer ST dataset. By integrating single cell (SC) data we demonstrated that cells annotated as cancerous in the SC data map to regions of benign glands in the ST dataset. We pinpoint several genes, chiefly Microseminoprotein-β (MSMB, PSP94), where reduced expression is highly correlated with poor progression-free survival. Cell type specific differential expression analysis further revealed that loss of MSMB expression associated with poor outcomes occurs specifically in luminal epithelia, the putative progenitor of prostate cancer. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: DEGAS reveals that normal-appearing tissue can be highly-associated with tumor progression and underscores the importance of the 'field effect' in cancer research. Traditional analysis may miss such nuance, hiding key transitional cell states. Validating gene markers could boost early cancer detection and understanding of metastasis.
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