The one hour human proteome

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics(2024)

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We describe deep analysis of the human proteome in less than one hour. We achieve this expedited proteome characterization by leveraging state-of-the-art sample preparation, chromatographic separations, data analysis tools, and by using the new Orbitrap Astral mass spectrometer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, a high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer, and an asymmetric track lossless (Astral) mass analyzer. The system offers high MS/MS acquisition speed of 200 Hz and detects hundreds of peptide sequences per second within data independent- or data-dependent acquisition modes of operation. The fast-switching capabilities of the new quadrupole complement the sensitivity and fast ion scanning of the Astral analyzer to enable narrow-bin data-independent analysis (DIA) methods. Over a 30-minute active chromatographic method consuming a total analysis time of 56 minutes, the Q-Orbitrap-Astral hybrid MS collects an average of 4,319 MS1 scans and 438,062 MS/MS scans per run, producing 235,916 peptide sequences (1% false discovery rate (FDR)). On average, each 30-minute analysis achieved detection of 10,411 protein groups (1% FDR). We conclude, with these results and alongside other recent reports, that the one-hour human proteome is within reach.
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