Low Complexity Hybrid Beamforming for Downlink Multi-user MIMO OFDM Systems

Digital Signal Processing(2024)

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Hybrid beamforming is critical for massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) to achieve high spectral efficiency at reduced hardware cost. Existing hybrid beamforming schemes either design the analog beamforming and digital beamforming separately, or jointly optimize them through alternating optimization. Such strategies incur non-negligible performance degradation or huge computational complexity in optimization, which is especially evident with the partially connected architecture. In this work, we consider a general downlink multi-user MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system with the hybrid beamforming architecture, where finite-resolution phase shifters are adopted. We propose an efficient beamforming strategy on the sum rate maximization criterion. Rather than eliminating the interference entirely by digital beamforming, we optimize the analog beamforming by considering the interference at the same time. We consider a fixed digital beamforming structure to reduce the overall complexity. Given the fact of finite-resolution phase shifters, the analog beamforming is optimized over discrete phase values. Compared to existing hybrid beamforming designs, the proposed algorithm achieves much improved performance. By applying the average channel covariance to the analog beamforming design, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is further reduced. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm is applicable to both fully and partially connected architectures.
Multi-user massive MIMO,hybrid beamforming,OFDM,finite-resolution phase shifters,low complexity
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