Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule Regulates the Expression of Interleukin-33 in RSV Induced Airway Inflammation by Regulating MAPK Signaling Pathways

Lung(2024)

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Abstract
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that causes acute lower respiratory tract infectious diseases, particularly in young children and older individuals. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in various cell types, including epithelial cells, and is associated with inflammatory responses and various cancers. However, the precise role of ALCAM in RSV-induced airway inflammation remains unclear, and our study aimed to explore this gap in the literature. C57BL/6 wild-type, ALCAM knockout mice and airway epithelial cells were infected with RSV and the expression of ALCAM and inflammatory cytokines were measured. We also conducted further experiments using Anti-ALCAM antibody and recombinant ALCAM in airway epithelial cells. The expression levels of ALCAM and inflammatory cytokines increased in both RSV-infected mice and airway epithelial cells. Interestingly, IL-33 expression was significantly reduced in ALCAM-knockdown cells compared to control cells following RSV infection. Anti-ALCAM antibody treatment also reduced IL-33 expression following RSV infection. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK was diminished in ALCAM-knockdown cells compared to control cells following RSV infection. Notably, in the control cells, inhibition of these pathways significantly decreased the expression of IL-33. In vivo study also confirmed a reduction in inflammation induced by RSV infection in ALCAM deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that ALCAM contributes to RSV-induced airway inflammation at least partly by influencing IL-33 expression through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that targeting ALCAM could be a potential therapeutic strategy for alleviating IL-33-associated lung diseases.
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Key words
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule,Airway epithelial cells,Interleukin-33,MAPK signaling pathways,Respiratory syncytial virus
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