Nicotinamide riboside activates renal metabolism and protects the kidney in a model of Alport syndrome.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology(2024)

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摘要
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with renal metabolic disturbances, including impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is a small molecule that participates in hundreds of metabolism-related reactions. NAD + levels are decreased in CKD, and NAD + supplementation is protective. However, both the mechanism of how NAD + supplementation protects from CKD, as well as the cell types most responsible, are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of Alport syndrome, we show that nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD + precursor, stimulates renal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α signaling and restores FAO in the proximal tubules, thereby protecting from CKD in both sexes. Bulk RNA-sequencing shows that renal metabolic pathways are impaired in Alport mice and dramatically activated by NR in both sexes. These transcriptional changes are confirmed by orthogonal imaging techniques and biochemical assays. Single nuclei RNA-sequencing and spatial transcriptomics, both the first of their kind from Alport mice, show that NAD + supplementation restores FAO in the proximal tubules with minimal effects on the podocytes. Finally, we also report, for the first time, sex differences at the transcriptional level in this Alport model. Male Alport mice had more severe inflammation and fibrosis than female mice at the transcriptional level. In summary, the data herein identify both the protective mechanism and location of NAD + supplementation in this model of CKD.
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