High Sensitivity and High Throughput Magnetic Flow CMOS Cytometers with 2D Oscillator Array and Inter-Sensor Spectrogram Cross-correlation.

IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems(2024)

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In the paper, we present an integrated flow cytometer with a 2D array of magnetic sensors based on dual-frequency oscillators in a 65-nm CMOS process, with the chip packaged with microfluidic controls. The sensor architecture and the presented array signal processing allows uninhibited flow of the sample for high throughput without the need for hydrodynamic focusing to a single sensor. To overcome the challenge of sensitivity and specificity that comes as a trade off with high throughout, we perform two levels of signal processing. First, utilizing the fact that a magnetically tagged cell is expected to excite sequentially an array of sensors in a time-delayed fashion, we perform inter-site cross-correlation of the sensor spectrograms that allows us to suppress the probability of false detection drastically, allowing theoretical sensitivity reaching towards sub-ppM levels that is needed for rare cell or circulating tumor cell detection. In addition, we implement two distinct methods to suppress correlated low frequency drifts of singular sensors-one with an on-chip sensor reference and one that utilizes the frequency dependence of the susceptibility of super-paramagnetic magnetic beads that we deploy as tags. We demonstrate these techniques on a 7×7 sensor array in 65 nm CMOS technology packaged with microfluidics with magnetically tagged dielectric particles and cultu lymphoma cancer cells.
Biosensor,magnetic flow cytometer,flow cytometry,LC-tank oscillator,frequency tracking,microfluidics,superparamagnetic,point-of-care diagnostics
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