Longitudinal analysis of systemic ventricular function and atrioventricular valve function after the Norwood procedure

Stefan Fetcu, Takuya Osawa,Frank Klawonn,Thibault Schaeffer, Christoph Roehlig,Helena Staehler, Chiara Di Padua,Paul Philipp Heinisch,Nicole Piber,Alfred Hager, Peter Ewert,Juergen Hoerer,Masamichi Ono

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY(2024)

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Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate longitudinal systemic ventricular function and atrioventricular valve regurgitation in patients after the neonatal Norwood procedure. METHODS: Serial postoperative echocardiographic images before Fontan completion were assessed in neonates who underwent the Norwood procedure between 2001 and 2020. Ventricular function and atrioventricular valve regurgitation were compared between patients with modified Blalock-Taussig shunt and right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. RESULTS: A total of 335 patients were identified including 273 hypoplastic left heart syndrome and 62 of its variants. Median age at Norwood was 8 (7-12) days. Modified Blalock-Taussig shunt was performed in 171 patients and the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit in 164 patients. Longitudinal ventricular function and atrioventricular valve regurgitation were evaluated using a total of 4352 echocardiograms. After the Norwood procedure, ventricular function was initially worse (1-30 days) but thereafter better (30 days to stage II) in the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit group (P < 0.001). After stage II, the ventricular function was inferior in the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery conduit group (P < 0.001). Atrioventricular valve regurgitation between the Norwood procedure and stage II was more frequent in the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt group (P < 0.001). After stage II, there was no significant difference in atrioventricular valve regurgitation between the groups (P = 0.171). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of shunt type on haemodynamics after the Norwood procedure seems to vary according to the stage of palliation. After the Norwood, the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is associated with poorer ventricular function and worse atrioventricular valve regurgitation compared to right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. Whereas, after stage II, modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is associated with better ventricular function and comparable atrioventricular valve regurgitation, compared to the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit.
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Key words
Norwood procedure,Hypoplastic left heart syndrome,Ventricular function,Atrioventricular regurgitation,Shunt types
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