Combined depth and scalp electroencephalographic monitoring in acute brain injury: Yield and prognostic value


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Background and purpose: Depth electroencephalography (dEEG) is an emerging neuromonitoring technology in acute brain injury (ABI). We aimed to explore the concordances between electrophysiological activities on dEEG and on scalp EEG (scEEG) in ABI patients. Methods: Consecutive ABI patients who received dEEG monitoring between 2018 and 2022 were included. Background, sporadic epileptiform discharges, rhythmic and periodic patterns (RPPs), electrographic seizures, brief potentially ictal rhythmic discharges, ictal-interictal continuum (IIC) patterns, and hourly RPP burden on dEEG and scEEG were compared. Results: Sixty-one ABI patients with a median dEEG monitoring duration of 114 h were included. dEEG significantly showed less continuous background (75% vs. 90%, p = 0.03), higher background amplitude (p < 0.001), more frequent rhythmic spike-and-waves (16% vs. 3%, p = 0.03), more IIC patterns (39% vs. 21%, p = 0.03), and greater hourly RPP burden (2430 vs. 1090 s/h, p = 0.01), when compared to scEEG. Among five patients with seizures on scEEG, one patient had concomitant seizures on dEEG, one had periodic discharges (not concomitant) on dEEG, and three had no RPPs on dEEG. Features and temporal occurrence of electrophysiological activities observed on dEEG and scEEG are not strongly associated. Patients with seizures and IIC patterns on dEEG seemed to have a higher rate of poor outcomes at discharge than patients without these patterns on dEEG (42% vs. 25%, p = 0.37). Conclusions: dEEG can detect abnormal electrophysiological activities that may not be seen on scEEG and can be used as a complement in the neuromonitoring of ABI patients.
acute brain injury,depth electroencephalography,ictal-interictal continuum,intracortical electroencephalography,rhythmic and periodic patterns
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