4D-ONIX: A deep learning approach for reconstructing 3D movies from sparse X-ray projections


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The X-ray flux provided by X-ray free-electron lasers and storage rings offers new spatiotemporal possibilities to study in-situ and operando dynamics, even using single pulses of such facilities. X-ray Multi-Projection Imaging (XMPI) is a novel technique that enables volumetric information using single pulses of such facilities and avoids centrifugal forces induced by state-of-the-art time-resolved 3D methods such as time-resolved tomography. As a result, XMPI can acquire 3D movies (4D) at least three orders of magnitude faster than current methods. However, no algorithm can reconstruct 4D from highly sparse projections acquired by XMPI. Here, we present 4D-ONIX, a Deep Learning (DL)-based approach that learns to reconstruct 3D movies (4D) from an extremely limited number of projections. It combines the computational physical model of X-ray interaction with matter and state-of-the-art DL methods. We demonstrate the potential of 4D-ONIX to generate high-quality 4D by generalizing over multiple experiments with only two projections per timestamp for binary droplet collisions. We envision that 4D-ONIX will become an enabling tool for 4D analysis, offering new spatiotemporal resolutions to study processes not possible before.
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