Self-Adaptive-Filling Deep Convolutional Neural Network Classification Method for Mountain Vegetation Type Based on High Spatial Resolution Aerial Images

Shiou Li,Xianyun Fei, Peilong Chen,Zhen Wang,Yajun Gao, Kai Cheng, Huilong Wang,Yuanzhi Zhang

REMOTE SENSING(2024)

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Abstract
The composition and structure of mountain vegetation are complex and changeable, and thus urgently require the integration of Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) and Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs). However, while integration technology studies are continuing to increase, there have been few studies that have carried out the classification of mountain vegetation by combining OBIA and DCNNs, for it is difficult to obtain enough samples to trigger the potential of DCNNs for mountain vegetation type classification, especially using high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images. To address this issue, we propose a self-adaptive-filling method (SAF) to incorporate the OBIA method to improve the performance of DCNNs in mountain vegetation type classification using high-spatial-resolution aerial images. Using this method, SAF technology was employed to produce enough regular sample data for DCNNs by filling the irregular objects created by image segmenting using interior adaptive pixel blocks. Meanwhile, non-sample segmented image objects were shaped into different regular rectangular blocks via SAF. Then, the classification result was defined by voting combining the DCNN performance. Compared to traditional OBIA methods, SAF generates more samples for the DCNN and fully utilizes every single pixel of the DCNN input. We design experiments to compare them with traditional OBIA and semantic segmentation methods, such as U-net, MACU-net, and SegNeXt. The results show that our SAF-DCNN outperforms traditional OBIA in terms of accuracy and it is similar to the accuracy of the best performing method in semantic segmentation. However, it reduces the common pretzel phenomenon of semantic segmentation (black and white noise generated in classification). Overall, the SAF-based OBIA using DCNNs, which is proposed in this paper, is superior to other commonly used methods for vegetation classification in mountainous areas.
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Key words
object-based image analysis,deep learning,mountain vegetation type classification,high spatial aerial remote sensing images
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