A tree-based model with branch parallel decoding for handwritten mathematical expression recognition

Zhe Li, Wentao Yang,Hengnian Qi,Lianwen Jin, Yichao Huang,Kai Ding

PATTERN RECOGNITION(2024)

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Abstract
Handwritten mathematical expression recognition (HMER) is a challenging task in the field of computer vision due to the complex two-dimensional spatial structure and diverse handwriting styles of mathematical expressions (MEs). Recent mainstream approach treats MEs as objects with tree structures, modeled by sequence decoders or tree decoders. These decoders recognize the symbols and relationships between symbols in MEs in depth-first order, resulting in long decoding steps that can harm their performance, particularly for MEs with complex structures. In this paper, we propose a novel tree-based model with branch parallel decoding for HMER, which parses the structures of ME trees by explicitly predicting the relationships between symbols. In addition, a query constructing module is proposed to assist the decoder in decoding the branches of ME trees in parallel, thus reducing the number of decoding time steps and alleviating the problem of long sequence attention decoding. As a result, our model outperforms existing models on three widely-used benchmarks and demonstrates significant improvements in HMER performance.
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Key words
Handwritten mathematical expression,recognition,Tree-based model,Parallel decoding,Attention mechanism
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