Peony Pollen Protects against Primary Dysmenorrhea in Mice by Inhibiting Inflammatory Response and Regulating the COX2/PGE2 Pathway

International Journal of Molecular Sciences(2023)

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Abstract
Peony pollen contains multiple nutrients and components and has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history, but the effect of the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea remains to be clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of peony pollen on primary dysmenorrhea mice and the potential mechanism. A uterus contraction model in vitro and primary dysmenorrhea mice were used to evaluate the treatment effect of peony pollen on primary dysmenorrhea. The primary dysmenorrhea mice were treated with 62.5 mg/kg, 125 mg/kg, or 250 mg/kg of peony pollen, and the writhing response, latency period, histopathological changes in the uterus, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) levels, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were investigated. Protein expression of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase 1 (mPGEs-1), BCL2-Associated X (Bax), B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by Western blot, and the oxidative stress related marker malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated. Peony pollen could attenuate spontaneous or oxytocin-induced uterus contractions in vitro. Moreover, peony pollen decreased the writhing times, prolonged the writhing latency, and reduced the pathological damage of uterine tissues. Furthermore, the inflammatory cell infiltration and the protein expression of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and NLRP3 were decreased. The COX-2/PGE2 pathway was inhibited; oxidative stress and apoptosis in the uterus also improved in the uterus of primary dysmenorrhea mice. Peony pollen exerts a positive effect on primary dysmenorrhea by inhibiting the inflammatory response and modulating oxidative stress and apoptosis by regulating the COX-2/PGE2 pathway.
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Key words
peony pollen,primary dysmenorrhea,COX-2/PGE2 pathway,inflammatory response,oxidative stress
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