Epigenetic disruption of the RARγ complex impairs its function to bookmark AR enhancer interactions required for enzalutamide sensitivity in prostate cancer


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The current study in prostate cancer (PCa) focused on the genomic mechanisms at the cross-roads of pro-differentiation signals and the emergence of lineage plasticity. We explored an understudied cistromic mechanism involving RARγ’s ability to govern AR cistrome-transcriptome relationships, including those associated with more aggressive PCa features. The RARγ complex in PCa cell models was enriched for canonical cofactors, as well as proteins involved in RNA processing and bookmarking. Identifying the repertoire of miR-96 bound and regulated gene targets, including those recognition elements marked by m6A, revealed their significant enrichment in the RARγ complex. RARγ significantly enhanced the AR cistrome, particularly in active enhancers and super-enhancers, and overlapped with the binding of bookmarking factors. Furthermore, RARγ expression led to nucleosome-free chromatin enriched with H3K27ac, and significantly enhanced the AR cistrome in G2/M cells. RARγ functions also antagonized the transcriptional actions of the lineage master regulator ONECUT2. Similarly, gene programs regulated by either miR-96 or antagonized by RARγ were enriched in alternative lineages and more aggressive PCa phenotypes. Together these findings reveal an under-investigated role for RARγ, modulated by miR-96, to bookmark enhancer sites during mitosis. These sites are required by the AR to promote transcriptional competence, and emphasize luminal differentiation, while antagonizing ONECUT2. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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