Hyperon Polarization along the Beam Direction Relative to the Second and Third Harmonic Event Planes in Isobar Collisions at sNN=200 GeV

M. I. Abdulhamid,B. E. Aboona,J. Adam,J. R. Adams,G. Agakishiev,I. Aggarwal,M. M. Aggarwal,Z. Ahammed,A. Aitbaev,I. Alekseev,D. M. Anderson,A. Aparin,S. Aslam,J. Atchison,G. S. Averichev,V. Bairathi,W. Baker,J. Ball,K. N. Barish,P. Bhagat,A. Bhasin,Somadutta Bhatta,I. G. Bordyuzhin,J. D. Brandenburg,A. V. Brandin,X. Z. Cai,H. Caines,M. Calderón De La Barca Sánchez,D. Cebra,J. Ceska,I. Chakaberia,B. K. Chan,Z. Chang,A. Chatterjee,D. Chen,J. Chen,J. H. Chen,Z. Chen,J. Cheng,Yilin Cheng,S. Choudhury,W. Christie,X. Chu,H. J. Crawford,G. Dale-Gau,A. Das,M. Daugherity,T. G. Dedovich,I. M. Deppner,A. A. Derevschikov,A. Dhamija,L. Di Carlo,P. Dixit,X. Dong,J. L. Drachenberg,E. Duckworth,J. C. Dunlop,J. Engelage,G. Eppley,S. Esumi,O. Evdokimov,A. Ewigleben,O. Eyser,R. Fatemi,S. Fazio,C. Feng,Y. Feng,E. Finch,Y. Fisyak,F. Flor,C. Fu, Tong Gao,F. J. M. Geurts,Nirmal Ghimire,A. Gibson,K. Gopal,X. Gou,D. Grosnick,A. Gupta,A. Hamed,Y. Han,M. D. Harasty,J. W. Harris,H. Harrison-Smith,W. He,X. He,Yang He,C. Hu,Q. Hu,Y. Hu,H. Z. Huang,H. Z. Huang,S. Huang,T. Huang,X. Huang,Y. Huang,Y. Huang,T. J. Humanic,D. Isenhower,M. Isshiki,W. W. Jacobs,Ashish Jalotra,C. Jena,Y. Ji,J. Jia,C. Jin,X. Ju,E. G. Judd,S. Kabana,M. L. Kabir,D. Kalinkin,K. Kang,D. Kapukchyan,K. Kauder,D. Keane,A. Kechechyan,M. Kelsey,B. Kimelman,A. Kiselev,A. G. Knospe, H. S. Ko,L. Kochenda,A. A. Korobitsin,П. Кравцов,L. Kumar,Sanjeev Kumar,Raghav Kunnawalkam Elayavalli,R. Lacey,J. M. Landgraf,A. Lebedev,R. Lednický,J. H. Lee,Y. H. Leung,N. A. Lewis,C. Li,W. Li,X. Li, Y. Li,Y. Li,Z. Li,X. Liang,Y. Liang,T. H. Lin,C. Liu,F. Liu,G. Liu, H. Liu,H. Liu,L. Liu,T. Liu,X. Liu,Y. Liu,Z. Liu,T. Ljubičić,W. J. Llope,O. Lomicky,R. S. Longacre,E. Loyd,Tingting Lu,N. S. Lukow,X. Luo,V. B. Luong,L. Ma,R. Ma, Y. G.,N. Magdy,Dukhishyam Mallick,S. Margetis,H. S. Matis,J. Mazer,G. McNamara,K. Mi,N. G. Minaev,B. Mohanty,M. M. Mondal,I. Mooney,Д. А. Морозов,A. Mudrokh,M. I. Nagy,A. S. Nain,J. D. Nam,Md. Nasim,D. Neff,J. M. Nelson,D. B. Nemes,M. Nie,G. Nigmatkulov,T. Niida,R. Nishitani,L. V. Nogach,T. Nonaka,G. Odyniec,A. Ogawa,S. Oh,В. А. Окороков,K. Okubo,B. S. Page,R. Pak, Pan Jian,A. Pandav,A. K. Pandey,Y. Panebratsev,T. Pani,P. Parfenov,A. Paul,C. Perkins,B. R. Pokhrel,M. Posik,T. Protzman,N. K. Pruthi,J. Putschke,Z. H. Qin,H. Qiu,A. Quintero,C. Racz,S. K. Radhakrishnan,N. Raha,R. L. Ray,H. G. Ritter,Charles W. Robertson,O. V. Rogachevsky,M. A. Rosales Aguilar,D. Roy,L. Ruan,A. K. Sahoo,N. Sahoo,H. Sako,S. Salur,E. Samigullin,Susumu Sato,W. B. Schmidke,N. Schmitz,J. Seger,R. Seto,P. Seyboth,N. Shah,E. Shahaliev,P. V. Shanmuganathan,T. Shao,Meenakshi Sharma,N. Sharma,R. Sharma,Seema Sharma,A. I. Sheikh, D. Y. Shen,D. Y. Shen,K. Shen,S. S. Shi,Y. Shi,Q. Shou,F. Si,J. B. Singh,S. Singha,P. Sinha,M. J. Skoby,Y. Söhngen,Y. Song,B. Srivastava,T. D. S. Stanislaus,David J. Stewart,M. Strikhanov,B. Stringfellow,Y. Su,C. Sun,X. M. Sun, Y. Z. Sun, Y. Z. Sun,B. Surrow,D. N. Svirida,Z. W. Sweger,A. Tamis,A. H. Tang,Z. Tang,A. Taranenko,T. Tarnowsky,J. H. Thomas,D. Tlusty,T. Todoroki,M. Tokarev,C. A. Tomkiel,S. Trentalange,R. E. Tribble,P. Tribedy,O. D. Tsai,C. Y. Tsang,Z. Tu,J. Tyler,T. Ullrich,D. G. Underwood,I. Upsal,G. Van Buren,A. Vasiliev,V. Verkest,F. Videbæk,S. Vokál,S. A. Voloshin,F. Wang,G. Wang,J. S. Wang,J. Wang,X. Wang, Y. Wang,Y. Wang,Y. Wang,Z. Wang,J. C. Webb,P. C. Weidenkaff,G. D. Westfall,H. Wieman,G. Wilks,S. W. Wissink, Jian Wu,Jian Wu, X. Wu,X. Wu,Y. F. Wu,B. Xi, Xiao Zhang,G. Xie,W. Xie,H. Xu,N. Xu,Q. H. Xu, Y. Xu,Y. Xu, Z. Xu,Z. Xu,Yan Gao,Z. Yan, C. G. Yang,Q. Yang,S. Yang,Yi Yang, Z. Ye,Z. Ye,L. Yi,K. Yip,Y. Yu,W. Zha,C. Zhang,D. Zhang,J. Zhang,S. Zhang,W. Zhang,X. Zhang, Y. Zhang,Y. Zhang,Y. Zhang,Y. Zhang,Z. J. Zhang, Z. Zhang,Z. Zhang,Feng Zhao,J. Zhao,M. Zhao, C. Zhou,Jing Zhou,S. Zhou,C. Zhou,X. Zhu,M. Żurek,M. Zyzak

Physical Review Letters(2023)

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Abstract
The polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons along the beam direction has been measured relative to the second and third harmonic event planes in isobar Ru+Ru and Zr+Zr collisions at sNN=200 GeV. This is the first experimental evidence of the hyperon polarization by the triangular flow originating from the initial density fluctuations. The amplitudes of the sine modulation for the second and third harmonic results are comparable in magnitude, increase from central to peripheral collisions, and show a mild pT dependence. The azimuthal angle dependence of the polarization follows the vorticity pattern expected due to elliptic and triangular anisotropic flow, and qualitatively disagrees with most hydrodynamic model calculations based on thermal vorticity and shear induced contributions. The model results based on one of existing implementations of the shear contribution lead to a correct azimuthal angle dependence, but predict centrality and pT dependence that still disagree with experimental measurements. Thus, our results provide stringent constraints on the thermal vorticity and shear-induced contributions to hyperon polarization. Comparison to previous measurements at RHIC and the LHC for the second-order harmonic results shows little dependence on the collision system size and collision energy.Received 16 March 2023Revised 7 July 2023Accepted 3 October 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.202301© 2023 American Physical SocietyPhysics Subject Headings (PhySH)Research AreasCollective flowPolarization phenomenaRelativistic heavy-ion collisionsNuclear Physics
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Key words
isobar collisions,third harmonic event planes,beam direction
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