Ganglioglioma cells potentiate neuronal network synchronicity and elicit burst discharges via released factors

Philipp Mueller,Dirk Dietrich, Susanne Schoch,Julika Pitsch,Albert J. Becker, Silvia Cases-Cunillera

Neurobiology of disease(2024)

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Gangliogliomas (GGs) represent the most frequent glioneuronal tumor entity associated with chronic recurrent seizures; rare anaplastic GGs variants retain the glioneuronal character. So far, key mechanisms triggering chronic hyperexcitability in the peritumoral area are unresolved. Based on a recent mouse model for anaplastic GG (BRAFV600E, mTOR activation and Trp53KO) we here assessed the influence of GG-secreted factors on nonneoplastic cells in-vitro. We generated conditioned medium (CM) from primary GG cell cultures to developing primary cortical neurons cultured on multielectrode-arrays and assessed their electrical activity in comparison to neurons incubated with naive and neuronal CMs. Our results showed that the GG CM, while not affecting the mean firing rates of networks, strongly accelerated the formation of functional networks as indicated increased synchrony of firing and burst activity. Washing out the GG CM did not reverse these effects indicating an irreversible effect on the neuronal network. Mass spectrometry analysis of GG CM detected several enriched proteins associated with neurogenesis as well as gliogenesis, including Gap43, App, Apoe, S100a8, Tnc and Sod1. Concomitantly, immunocytochemical analysis of the neuronal cultures exposed to GG CM revealed abundant astrocytes suggesting that the GG-secreted factors induce astroglial proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of astrocyte proliferation only partially reversed the accelerated network maturation in neuronal cultures exposed to GG CM indicating that the GG CM exerts a direct effect on the neuronal component. Taken together, we demonstrate that GG-derived paracrine signaling alone is sufficient to induce accelerated neuronal network development accompanied by astrocytic proliferation. Perspectively, a deeper understanding of factors involved may serve as the basis for future therapeutic approaches.
Ganglioglioma,Neuronal maturation,Plasticity,Reactive astrocyte
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