Learning to Parameterize Visual Attributes for Open-set Fine-grained Retrieval.


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Open-set fine-grained retrieval is an emerging challenging task that allows to retrieve unknown categories beyond the training set. The best solution for handling unknown categories is to represent them using a set of visual attributes learnt from known categories, as widely used in zero-shot learning. Though important, attribute modeling usually requires significant manual annotations and thus is labor-intensive. Therefore, it is worth to investigate how to transform retrieval models trained by image-level supervision from category semantic extraction to attribute modeling. To this end, we propose a novel Visual Attribute Parameterization Network (VAPNet) to learn visual attributes from known categories and parameterize them into the retrieval model, without the involvement of any attribute annotations. In this way, VAPNet could utilize its parameters to parse a set of visual attributes from unknown categories and precisely represent them. Technically, VAPNet explicitly attains some semantics with rich details via making use of local image patches and distills the visual attributes from these discovered semantics. Additionally, it integrates the online refinement of these visual attributes into the training process to iteratively enhance their quality. Simultaneously, VAPNet treats these attributes as supervisory signals to tune the retrieval models, thereby achieving attribute parameterization. Extensive experiments on open-set fine-grained retrieval datasets validate the superior performance of our VAPNet over existing solutions.
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