Detecting Alzheimer's Disease in EEG Data with Machine Learning and the Graph Discrete Fourier Transform

Xavier Stephen Mootoo, Alice Fours,Chinthaka Dinesh, Mohammad Ashkani,Adam Kiss,Mateusz Faltyn

medRxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)(2023)

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Abstract
Alzheimer Disease (AD) poses a significant and growing public health challenge worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis is crucial for effective intervention and care. In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in leveraging Electroen-cephalography (EEG) to improve the detection of AD. This paper focuses on the application of Graph Signal Processing (GSP) techniques using the Graph Discrete Fourier Transform (GDFT) to analyze EEG recordings for the detection of AD, by employing several machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) models. We evaluate our models on publicly available EEG data containing 88 patients categorized into three groups: AD, Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Healthy Controls (HC). Binary classification of dementia versus HC reached a top accuracy of 85% (SVM), while multiclass classification of AD, FTD, and HC attained a top accuracy of 44% (Naive Bayes). We provide novel GSP methodology for detecting AD, and form a framework for further experimentation to investigate GSP in the context of other neurodegenerative diseases across multiple data modalities, such as neuroimaging data in Major Depressive Disorder, Epilepsy, and Parkinson disease. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest. ### Funding Statement Study was funded by: The Vector Institute through the Vector Scholarship in AI, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) through the Canada Graduate Scholarships (Master's). ### Author Declarations I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained. Yes The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below: The study used openly available human data originally located at: https://openneuro.org/datasets/ds004504/versions/1.0.6 I confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals. Yes I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance). Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines, such as any relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material, if applicable. Yes The original dataset used in the study can be found at the original link here: https://openneuro.org/datasets/ds004504/versions/1.0.6 Code for generating features, plots, and training machine learning models for reproducibility can be found here: https://github.com/xmootoo/gsp-alzheimer-detection
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