Dual-comb spectroscopy over 100km open-air path

arXiv (Cornell University)(2023)

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Satellite-based greenhouse gases (GHG) sensing technologies play a critical role in the study of global carbon emissions and climate change. However, none of the existing satellite-based GHG sensing technologies can achieve the measurement of broad bandwidth, high temporal-spatial resolution, and high sensitivity at the same time. Recently, dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) has been proposed as a superior candidate technology for GHG sensing because it can measure broadband spectra with high temporal-spatial resolution and high sensitivity. The main barrier to DCS's display on satellites is its short measurement distance in open air achieved thus far. Prior research has not been able to implement DCS over 20 km of open-air path. Here, by developing a bistatic setup using time-frequency dissemination and high-power optical frequency combs, we have implemented DCS over a 113 km turbulent horizontal open-air path. Our experiment successfully measured GHG with 7 nm spectral bandwidth and a 10 kHz frequency and achieved a CO2 sensing precision of <2 ppm in 5 minutes and <0.6 ppm in 36 minutes. Our results represent a significant step towards advancing the implementation of DCS as a satellite-based technology and improving technologies for GHG monitoring
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